Visceral leishmaniasis (also known as kala-azar) affects people in Africa, Asia and Latin America. Programs reported 12,000 cases in 2021. Visceral leishmaniasis is caused by the infected bites of sandflies that breed in and around homes or farms.
If visceral leishmaniasis progresses, it attacks the immune system and affects the bone marrow and internal organs (including enlargement and impaired function of the spleen and liver), as well as causing irregular bouts of fever, substantial weight loss and anaemia. Without treatment, visceral leishmaniasis can have a fatality rate as high as 100% within two years.
The disease is linked to poverty.
Number of visceral leishmaniasis cases reported by country
Number of visceral leishmaniasis cases reported by year
Cutaneous leishmaniasis affects people in the Americas, the Mediterranean basin, the Middle East and Central Asia. It is estimated that between 600 000 to 1 million new cases occur worldwide annually.
Cutaneous leishmaniasis(CL) is the most common form of leishmaniasis and causes skin lesions, mainly ulcers, on exposed parts of the body, leaving life-long scars and serious disability or stigma. In 2021 over 80% of new CL cases occurred in 10 countries: Afghanistan, Algeria, Brazil, Colombia, Iraq, Libya, Pakistan, Peru, the Syrian Arab Republic and Tunisia.